Odoo is greatly data-driven, and a big part of modules definition is thus the definition of the various records it manages: UI (menus and views), security (access rights and access rules), reports and plain data are all defined via records.
The main way to define data in Odoo is via XML data files: The broad structure of an XML data file is the following:
- The nested root elements openerp and data
- Any number of operation elements within data
<!-- the root elements of the data file --> <openerp><data> <operation/> ... </data></openerp>
Data files are executed sequentially, operations can only refer to the result of operations defined previously
record appropriately defines or updates a database record, it has the following attributes:
name of the model to create (or update)
the external identifier for this record. It is strongly recommended to provide one
- for record creation, allows subsequent definitions to either modify or refer to this record
- for record modification, the record to modify
context to use when creating the record
in update mode whether the record should be created if it doesn’t exist
Requires an external id, defaults to True.
Each record can be composed of field tags, defining values to set when creating the record. A record with no field will use all default values (creation) or do nothing (update).
A field has a mandatory name attribute, the name of the field to set, and various methods to define the value itself:
if no value is provided for the field, an implicit False will be set on the field. Can be used to clear a field, or avoid using a default value for the field.
Will evaluate the domain, search the field’s model using it and set the search’s result as the field’s value. Will only use the first result if the field is a Many2one
if a ref attribute is provided, its value must be a valid external id, which will be looked up and set as the field’s value.
if a type attribute is provided, it is used to interpret and convert the field’s content. The field’s content can be provided through an external file using the file attribute, or through the node’s body.
Available types are:
extracts the field‘s children as a single document, evaluates any external id specified with the form %(external_id)s. %%can be used to output actual % signs.
ensures that the field content is a valid file path in the current model, saves the pair module,path as the field value
sets the field content directly as the field’s value without alterations
base64-encodes the field’s content, useful combined with the file attribute to load e.g. image data into attachments
converts the field’s content to an integer and sets it as the field’s value
converts the field’s content to a float and sets it as the field’s value
should contain any number of value elements with the same properties as field, each element resolves to an item of a generated tuple or list, and the generated collection is set as the field’s value
for cases where the previous methods are unsuitable, the eval attributes simply evaluates whatever Python expression it is provided and sets the result as the field’s value.
The evaluation context contains various modules (time, datetime, timedelta, relativedelta), a function to resolve external identifiers (ref) and the model object for the current field if applicable (obj)
The delete tag can remove any number of records previously defined. It has the following attributes:
the model in which a specified record should be deleted
the external id of a record to remove
a domain to find records of the model to remove
id and search are exclusive
The function tag calls a method on a model, with provided parameters. It has two mandatory parameters model and namespecifying respectively the model and the name of the method to call.
Parameters can be provided using eval (should evaluate to a sequence of parameters to call the method with) or value elements (see list values).
The workflow tag sends a signal to an existing workflow. The workflow can be specified via a ref attribute (the external id of an existing workflow) or a value tag returning the id of a workflow.
The tag also has two mandatory attributes model (the model linked to the workflow) and action (the name of the signal to send to the workflow).
Because some important structural models of Odoo are complex and involved, data files provide shorter alternatives to defining them using record tags:
Defines an ir.ui.menu record with a number of defaults and fallbacks:
- If a parent attribute is set, it should be the external id of an other menu item, used as the new item’s parent
- If no parent is provided, tries to interpret the name attribute as a /-separated sequence of menu names and find a place in the menu hierarchy. In that interpretation, intermediate menus are automatically created
- Otherwise the menu is defined as a “top-level” menu item (not a menu with no parent)
If no name attribute is specified, tries to get the menu name from a linked action if any. Otherwise uses the record’s id
A groups attribute is interpreted as a comma-separated sequence of external identifiers for res.groups models. If an external identifier is prefixed with a minus (-), the group is removed from the menu’s groups
if specified, the action attribute should be the external id of an action to execute when the menu is open
the menu item’s external id
Creates a QWeb view requiring only the arch section of the view, and allowing a few optional attributes:
the view’s external identifier
name, inherit_id, priority
same as the corresponding field on ir.ui.view (nb: inherit_id should be an external identifier)
if set to True and combined with a inherit_id, defines the view as a primary
comma-separated list of group external identifiers
if set to "True", the template is a website page (linkable to, deletable)
enabled or disabled, whether the view can be disabled (in the website interface) and its default status. If unset, the view is always enabled.
Creates a ir.actions.report.xml record with a few default values.
Mostly just proxies attributes to the corresponding fields on ir.actions.report.xml, but also automatically creates the item in theMore menu of the report’s model.
CSV data files
XML data files are flexible and self-descriptive, but very verbose when creating a number of simple records of the same model in bulk.
- the file name is model_name.csv
- the first row lists the fields to write, with the special field id for external identifiers (used for creation or update)
- each row thereafter creates a new record
Here’s the first lines of the data file defining US states res.country.state.csv
"id","country_id:id","name","code" state_us_1,us,"Alabama","AL" state_us_2,us,"Alaska","AK" state_us_3,us,"Arizona","AZ" state_us_4,us,"Arkansas","AR" state_us_5,us,"California","CA" state_us_6,us,"Colorado","CO" state_us_7,us,"Connecticut","CT" state_us_8,us,"Delaware","DE" state_us_9,us,"District of Columbia","DC" state_us_10,us,"Florida","FL" state_us_11,us,"Georgia","GA" state_us_12,us,"Hawaii","HI" state_us_13,us,"Idaho","ID" state_us_14,us,"Illinois","IL"
rendered in a more readable format:
state_us_9usDistrict of ColumbiaDC
For each row (record):
- the first column is the external id of the record to create or update
- the second column is the external id of the country object to link to (country objects must have been defined beforehand)
- the third column is the name field for res.country.state
- the fourth column is the code field for res.country.state
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